Quantum Devices in Cryptography

S.A. Bukashkin, M.A. Cherepnev


Recently, many papers have appeared where it is proposed to use the quantum mechanical properties of interatomic interaction to solve cryptographic problems. In fact, we are talking about transferring the solution of the problem of the stability of information protection schemes from the mathematical apparatus to the properties of quantum mechanical objects. The paper discusses the positive and negative aspects of this approach in comparison with mathematical cryptography. The proposals on the use of cryptographic devices for the construction and analysis of cryptographic protocols are presented. An important area of application of quantum mechanisms is the construction of a computing device based on them. The article provides an overview and discusses the problems and prospects of such an approach. The advantages of semiconductor and photonic realizations are considered. A new structure of a photonic device is proposed for solving practical computational problems using new principles of quantum physics. This proposal seems to be more resistant to problems with ideal working conditions and error correction. The cryptographic properties of the quantum channels used today are analyzed for novelty in comparison with similar solutions of mathematical cryptography. Some other possibilities of using quantum devices (quantum sensors) in cryptography are considered. In particular, the designs of cryptoprotocols on a purely physical basis are proposed.

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